Citing your sources


Citing Photographs:
Example from:

Photographer Last name, First name. “Title of Photo.” Format. City: Publishing

Company, copyright date. Source, Collection. Medium, URL (accessed date).

O’Sullivan, Timothy, photographer. “[Incidents of the war. A Harvest of Death, Gettysburg, July 1863.]” Photograph. Washington, D.C.: Philip & Solomons, c1865. From Library of Congress: Selected Civil War Photographs, 1861-1865. (NUMBER+@band(cwp+4a40875)
(accessed March 15, 2008).

Citing a Website:

A decade of outreach. Evanston Public Library.
(accessed June 1, 2005).

Citing a blog:

Becker-Posner blog, The. (accessed March 28, 2006).

Citing an interview:
Unpublished interview
Begin with the name(s) of the person(s) interviewed. The first person’s name should be reversed, with a comma being placed after the last name and a period after the first name (or any middle name). A suffix, such as a roman numeral or Jr./Sr. should appear after the person’s given name, preceded by a comma.

Last NameFirst Name. Interview by First Name Last NameInterview TypeLocationDate Interviewed.

Smith, John. Interview with Jane Doe. Phone interview. New York City, March 5, 2009.

When two or more people are interviewed, only the first person’s name should be reversed, while the others are written in normal order. Separate each person’s names by a comma, and place the word “and” before the last person’s name. Include each person’s name in the citation – never use “et al” in place of anyone’s name.

Smith, John, and Jane Doe. Interview with Bob Anderson. Personal interview. Pittsburgh, February 11, 2009.

Citing a Magazine Article:

Martin, Steve. “Sports-Interview Shocker.” New Yorker, May 6, 2002.

Citing a Newspaper Article:
Newspaper articles may be cited in running text (“As William Niederkorn noted in a New York Times article on
June 20, 2002, . . . ”) instead of in a note or a parenthetical citation, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography or reference list as well.

Niederkorn, William S. “A Scholar Recants on His ‘Shakespeare’ Discovery.” New York Times, June 20, 2002, Arts section, Midwest edition

Citing an Article in a Print Journal:

Smith, John Maynard. “The Origin of Altruism.” Nature 393 (1998): 639–40.

Citing a Book:

One author
Doniger, Wendy. Splitting the Difference. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.

Two or more authors
Cowlishaw, Guy, and Robin Dunbar. Primate Conservation Biology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

Citing a Book Published Electronically

Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. (accessed June 27, 2006).

Citing a Thesis or Dissertation

Amundin, M. “Click Repetition Rate Patterns in Communicative Sounds from the Harbour Porpoise, Phocoena phocoena.” PhD diss., Stockholm University, 1991.


Sample student paper with footnotes or endnotes:

Blah blah blah, blah, blah blah, and Swain notes, “Blah blah blah.”1 Gaar disagrees, arguing, “Blah, blahblah.”2 

These footnotes are at the bottom of the page:
1 Joseph P. Swain, The Broadway Musical: A Critical and Musical Survey (New York: Oxford

University Press, 1990), 136. [<— the first time you quote or paraphrase from this book] 2 Gillian G. Gaar, She’s a Rebel: The History of Women in Rock & Roll (Seattle: Seal Press, 1992), 101-2.

Sample student paper with inline citations:

“It has been found that male mice react to estrogen treatment by a reduction in phase three of courtship behavior (Gumwad 1952:209; Bugjuice 1970)Click and Clack (1974) demonstrated that mice treated with synthetic estrogen analogs react similarly. The reduction in phase three courtship behavior may also be linked to nutritional status (Anon. 1996; Bruhahauser et al 1973).”

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