Annotated Sources due October 17th & 24th

Annotated Sources (Bibliography)

Type written in Microsoft Word and copied and pasted as a comment to this post. (Save your Word document)

Due October 17th:of the 13 cited and annotated sources listed below (To review your progress)
At the top of your post include your inquiry question

Due October 24th: Remaining 7 cited and annotated sources listed below (Final Annotated Bibliography due)
At the top of your post include your inquiry question

Required sources with annotation

3-5 Sentences for each of your cited 13 sources describing how each source helps to answer your inquiry question –  How to Cite Sources 

  1. 1st Person Account (i.e. Letters, Diaries, Speeches)
    • 3 Sources of this kind is needed
  2. Case Studies/Examples
    • 3 Sources of this kind is needed
  3. Academic Journals (i.e. Google Scholar)
    • 3 Sources of this kind is needed (each from a different journal)
  4. Experts
    • 2 Sources of this kind is needed
  5. Historical (i.e. Archives, Books)
    • 2 Sources of this kind is needed

HELPFUL RESOURCES:

Marymount Library Guides (Articles and Databases)

Google Scholar

Online Journal Search

MU Research Help

Citing Sources 

Library & Learning Services

 

17 Comments on “Annotated Sources due October 17th & 24th

  1. Google Scholar

    https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169204614001480

    According to this article hikers burn the most energy compared to runners and walkers. The article suggest that looking at nature alone can be considered a health benefit in itself. Exercising outside can also improve cardiovascular systems according to the article.

    http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1356766710380886

    According to this article hiking helps improve muscle tone, allows for de stressing in other various things. This particular article is about how tourism try to aim their activities towards something that is more healthy hiking being one of them.

    https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF03344138

    According to this article specific hiking vacations can lead to improved metabolic syndrome markers.

    Case Studies

    https://psmag.com/social-justice/for-good-health-take-a-hike-3862

    According to this article hiking in different ways can have different benefits for your health and that the people experience less depression and high self esteem.

    https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/health-benefits-of-hiking-raise-your-heart-rate-and-your-mood-2016092810414

    According to this article hiking is not only good for your heart but it is also a stress reliever.

    https://www.webmd.com/fitness-exercise/features/hiking-body-mind

    According to this article hiking lowers your risk of heart disease, improves blood pressure, controls weight, as well as other various things.

    References
    Corliss, J. (2016, September 23). Health benefits of hiking: Raise your heart rate and your mood. Retrieved from https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/health-benefits-of-hiking-raise-your-heart-rate-and-your-mood-2016092810414
    Greie, S., Humpeler, E., Gunga, H. C., Koralewski, E., Klingler, A., Mittermayr, M., . . . Schobersberger, W. (2014, March 11). Improvement of metabolic syndrome markers through altitude specific hiking vacations. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF03344138
    Hiking as a relevant wellness activity – results of an exploratory study of hiking tourists in Portugal applied to a rural tourism project. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1356766710380886
    McKinney, J. (2009, March 22). For Good Health: Take a Hike! Retrieved from https://psmag.com/social-justice/for-good-health-take-a-hike-3862
    Robinson, K. M. (n.d.). How Hiking Is Good for Body and Mind. Retrieved from https://www.webmd.com/fitness-exercise/features/hiking-body-mind
    Walking, hiking and running in parks: A multidisciplinary assessment of health and well-being benefits. (2014, July 20). Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169204614001480

    Aaliyah Clark

  2. How to better prepare for a hike?

    REI’s expert advice was on how to physically prepare yourself for a hike. It gave many exercises one could do to improve their strength for when a long and vigorous hike will come. For strength it recommender “Mountain climbers: This total-body workout strengthens your core, back, arms and legs.” (“Training for Hiking.” REI, http://www.rei.com/learn/expert-advice/hiking-training.html.) “Supermans: This exercise strengthens your abs and lower back.” (“Training for Hiking.” REI, http://www.rei.com/learn/expert-advice/hiking-training.html.)
    and much more. These exercises recommended by experts is important because someone wouldn’t want to burn out physically in a hike to soon.

    The speech’s purpose is to educate the listener on how to prepare for an over backpacking trip by talking about three different packs and their benefits and weaknesses. “A.1. Internal frame packs have the frame on the inside of the backpack to allow the backpack to sit closer to the body and moves with the body to help navigate difficult terrain. This type also mitigates the chance of becoming off balance.
    A.2. External frame packs support the weight away from the body, which helps in the ease of loading gear and allows sweat to evaporate from your body. This type can increase the chance of becoming off balance due to the weight not being close to the body.
    A.3. Daypacks are smaller and good for short distances and light loads due to not much support other than the shoulder straps.” (“Essay on Informative Speech about Hiking.” Essay on Informative Speech about Hiking – 1229 Words | Bartleby, http://www.bartleby.com/essay/informative-speech-about-hiking-P3CU3F2KTC.) This is critical news for a beginner as they should know what type of pack they need for their hike. Having the wrong one could lead to not being able to pack everything and or discomfort.

    The website gave examples on how to prepare yourself for a hike for resistance training it expressed the importance of “Skeletal muscles connect to bones that move the mechanics of your body such as the arms and legs. Building these muscles are important for long-distance hiking due to the intensity of hiking on the body.” (“Essay on Informative Speech about Hiking.” Essay on Informative Speech about Hiking – 1229 Words | Bartleby, http://www.bartleby.com/essay/informative-speech-about-hiking-P3CU3F2KTC.)
    I didn’t know that the skeletal muscles even got bigger before reading the article. I think was because when my Dad talked about steroids he said the skeletal muscles don’t get the effect like the other muscles. Now I know that it’s important to have strong skeletal muscles.

    According to this article experts recommend first choosing an easy Backpacking rout for those on their first time.
    • “Pick a place close to home. You want to spend more time hiking than driving. You also want to have ample daylight hours to reach camp before dark.
    • Just a few miles roundtrip is fine: Plan on shorter distances than your typical day hike because walking with a heavier pack is slower and more difficult.
    • Aim for a few hundred feet of elevation gain: If you’ve hiked much, then you know that mileage alone doesn’t tell the full story. So also choose a trail with less elevation gain than your typical day hike.
    • Pick a well-traveled trail and well-established camp: It’s nice to have hikers and backcountry campers nearby who can give you a hand if you run into difficulties.
    Make sure there’s water near camp: If your source will be a lake or large river, you should be fine. Streams and springs can dry up, though, so double check with local land managers before relying on a small water source.” (“Backpacking for Beginners.” REI, http://www.rei.com/learn/expert-advice/backpacking-beginners.html#choose.)
    This advice is helpful for those with less experience because it informs them that is ok to take it easy. If the new hiker takes the time to do the research of finding a place nearby with water fountains and well-marked trails they should be prepared.
    “Scouting activities can be physically and mentally demanding. Listed below are some of the risk factors that have been known to become issues during outdoor adventures.
    • Excessive body weight (obesity)
    • Cardiac or cardiovascular disease
    • Hypertension (high blood pressure)
    • Diabetes mellitus
    • Seizures
    • Asthma
    • Sleep apnea
    • Allergies or anaphylaxis
    • Musculoskeletal injuries
    • Psychological and emotional difficulties” (“Medical Information and First Aid” BSA, http://www.scouting.org/health-and-safety/gss/gss05/)
    I learned from the scout handbook is how it is important to pack a first aid in case you or someone else has any of the conditions above as well if when hiking alone having told a fellow before going on an adventure. As the conditions listed could cause much pain and maybe even death if exposed to wilderness long enough.
    “Try to keep your first aid kit small and simple. Stock it with multi-use items. Almost anything that provides good visibility of contents can be used for a household first aid kit.
    • If your kit will be on the move, a water-resistant, drop-proof container is best.
    • Inexpensive nylon bags, personal kits, fanny packs, or make-up cases serve very well.
    • You do not need to spend a lot of money on a fancy “medical bag.” Use resealable sandwich or oven bags to group and compartmentalize items.
    • Put wound supplies in one bag and medications in another.” (“First Aid Kits: Basic Types, List,Contents&Supplies.” EMedicineHealth,www.emedicinehealth.com/first_aid_kits/article_em.htm#home_and_travel_first_aid_kits.)
    This article gave an example of what is needed for a small first aid kit perfect for fitting in a backpack without taking up much space. Due to some hikes being short it would not be required to have a large med kit, or if the hiker is worried about keeping their pack light it’s also useful. Also, it would be important that it be able to deal with cuts, problems on the skin, and allergies.

  3. Why is digital storytelling important?
    Historical 2/2
    Miller, Carolyn Handler. Digital storytelling: A creator’s guide to interactive entertainment. Focal Press, 2014.
    -Digital storytelling allows you to create interactive narratives across an abundance of networks, also letting users enter the story change it to fit their way of seeing, or thinking.

    Lambert, Joe. Digital storytelling: Capturing lives, creating community. Routledge, 2013.
    -Digital storytelling is important because anyone can use it and students can take the roles of teacher through digital storytelling.
    Academic Journal 1/3
    McClean, S. T. (2008). Digital storytelling : the narrative power of visual effects in film. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com
    -Digital storytelling is important because it matters to people culturally and for our self identity, individual and societal wise. Digital storytelling develops our deepest thoughts and emotion, according to Aristotle philosophy.

    Case Study 1/3
    Sadik, Alaa. “Digital storytelling: A meaningful technology-integrated approach for engaged student learning.” Educational technology research and development 56.4 (2008): 487-506.
    -Digital storytelling is important because it is a simple method to help students create a storyline out of a mixture of complex concepts. It also elevates the experience of students and teachers by crafting storylines from imagination.

    1st Person Account 2/3
    Lambert, J. (2013). Digital Storytelling : Capturing Lives, Creating Community. Hoboken: Routledge
    -Digital storytelling is important because it strengthens memories by forming new synaptic nerves creating a new context. In this article a woman is dying of AIDS and uses her personal crisis to form an organisation to tell her story, and in result she makes a friend. In result her storytelling impacted a large group of people and helped her find a meaningful friendship

    “5 Crucial Elements of Digital Storytelling.” Lessing-Flynn, 4 Apr. 2017, http://www.lessingflynn.com/5-crucial-elements-digital-storytelling/
    -Digital storytelling is important because the way stories are told and shared evolves over time, and always changing. Marketing and Advertising your story is also important because it determines how many people will view or listen to your story.

  4. Claudio Espinoza Masache

    What are the downsides to hiking?

    “I Am Greg; the First-Person Story from WILD.” Wild – Pacific Crest Trail Association, 28 Jan. 2015, wild.pcta.org/2015/01/28/greg-first-person-story-wild/. (Accessed October 2, 2018)
    Points out the difficulties of hiking for new people by a guy who has been hiking regularly.

    Mouland, Michael. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Hiking and Camping Second Edition. Penguin Group USA, 2000.
    It suggests what you should avoid doing while hiking. People that are new to hiking must do stuff carefully or they’ll end up extremely tired or wasting resources.

    From Georgia to Maine: What I learned on a 6-month hike along the Appalachian Trail. The Washington Post https://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/travel/what-i-learned-on-a-6-month-2200-mile-hike-across-the-appalachian-trail/2016/02/18/d7294088-9d1b-11e5-a3c5-c77f2cc5a43c_story.html?noredirect=on&utm_term=.6758533190a0 (Accessed October 2, 2018)
    This is the person’s first extremely long hike. They suggest what to avoid doing and point out the downsides through their first experience in a long hike.

    Buijs, A.E., Pedroli, B. & Luginbühl, Y. Landscape Ecol (2006) 21: 375. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-005-5223-2
    This article points out how hiking and tourism affects the environment. Points out the downsides of hiking in different point of view.

    Törn, A., A. Tolvanen, Y. Norokorpi, R. Tervo, and P. Siikamäki. “Comparing the impacts of hiking, skiing and horse riding on trail and vegetation in different types of forest.” Journal of Environmental Management 90, no. 3 (2009): 1427-1434.
    Compares and contrasts different forms of hiking. Also points out the downsides that comes within these different forms of hiking.

    Burtscher, Martin, M. Philadelphy, and R. Likar. “Sudden cardiac death during mountain hiking and downhill skiing.” New England Journal of Medicine 329, no. 23 (1993): 1738-1739.
    Points out one case where someone died while hiking. Suggests what precautions one must take while hiking in order to avoid harm to yourself.

  5. Danielle Smith
    Annotated Bibliography
    Hiking For Beginners: 11 Essential Tips – HikingGuy.com
    Hazzard, Cris. “Hiking For Beginners: 11 Essential Tips.” HikingGuy.com, 15 July 2018, hikingguy.com/how-to-hike/hiking-for-beginners-11-essential-tips/.

    “Hiking for beginners can be intimidating. This easy guide has everything you need to know to hike safely, smartly, and not … I love hiking, how to I learn more?”

    This is a guide on how to hike for beginners. This source is essential because in order to get the full hiking experience, you should aim to be prepared for every situation.
    How to Enjoy Hiking More Through Conditioning — Washington Trails …
    “How to Enjoy Hiking More Through Conditioning.” Washington Trails Associations, 2011, http://www.wta.org/go-outside/trail-smarts/how-to/how-to-enjoy-hiking-more-through-conditioning.

    “Here are six exercise tips that can help us all enjoy hiking more: Think About Your Posture. As you walk, imagine yourself as a dancer—tall and elegant. Use the Most Powerful Muscles. Maintain a neutral spine. Build Strength Naturally. Work on Speed. Practice Your Balance.”

    This source is about how you can train yourself to enjoy hiking. It’s all about how you can enjoy hiking to the fullest extent. One way to increase enjoyment, for example, is by maintaining a good posture.
    A Beginner’s Guide to Hiking | Nerd Fitness
    “Decide if you’ll be hiking solo or with a friend/group – I love hiking solo – it’s … Google the park name, learn about it, and decide if that’s where you want to go.”

    This is another guide to hiking for beginners. It gives tips and tricks in order to maximize your hiking experience and have your hike going smooth and steady. This, I believe, will aid in your ability to properly enjoy the hike.

    Hiking as Mental and Physical Experience | Advances in Hospitality …
    Ingeborg Nordbø , , Nina K. Prebensen , (2015), Hiking as Mental and Physical Experience, in Joseph S. Chen (ed.) Advances in Hospitality and Leisure (Advances in Hospitality and Leisure, Volume 11) Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp.169 – 186

    “The present work studies hiking as tourist activity and its physical and mental benefits … The study results show that hiking tours in Norway perform rather well on … Shaping Destination Images through Social Networking Sites: A Case Study of …”

    This source is about the benefits of hiking on your mental and physical health. Studies on Hiking in Norway have shown that there are multiple benefits, with an improved mental health being the most important.

    Why hiking? Rationality and reflexivity within three categories of meaning construction
    Hanne Svarstad (2010) Why Hiking? Rationality and Reflexivity Within Three Categories of Meaning Construction, Journal of Leisure Research, 42:1, 91-110, DOI: 10.1080/00222216.2010.11950196

    “… Over the last decades, all of these show growth in walking (Odden 2008). This paper addresses the question of why people enjoy hiking … A strength of the study lies
    in the thorough way that respondents shared their thoughts on why they enjoy hiking …”

    The Lost Art of Reading Nature’s Signs: Use Outdoor Clues to Find …
    Gooley, Tristan, et al. The Lost Art of Reading Nature’s Signs: Use Outdoor Clues to Find Your Way, Predict the Weather, Locate Water, Track Animals–and Other Forgotten Skills. The Experiment, 2015.

  6. Inquiry Question:
    What camera angles are best for digital storytelling? Should there be multiple in the series?

    https://edtechteacher.org/tools/multimedia/digital-storytelling/
    This page is very helpful as it is really just a brief description followed by many other links that can help in the research of digital storytelling. This page has two links of digital storytelling examples, “Telling Their Stories” and “Youth Producing Change”. There are also links to different media resources and to lessons on how to integrate digital storytelling into teaching.

    https://medium.com/new-media-photography/a-picture-is-worth-a-thousand-words-digital-storytelling-c4b23e182aed
    This is the article “A Picture Is Worth A Thousand Words: Digital Storytelling” by Carrie West for Medium. This article explains what digital storytelling is, the different reasons for it and contains lots of examples of photos and the type of story it represents.

    http://digitalwriting101.net/content/excerpt-camera-angles-and-shooting-tips-for-digital-storytelling/
    This page on Digital Writing 101 shows the many camera angles that can be used in photography and the effect that they have on the photograph and the subject. It also shows some of the most common mistakes made when shooting a subject so that those can be avoided.

    https://www.slrlounge.com/three-magic-angles-for-storytelling-photography/
    In this article, Shivani Reddy uses her photographs from a wedding shoot to explain the “three magic angles for storytelling photography. She shows how by just using a scenic wide angle, a medium portrait and an emotional close portrait a story can be captured.

    https://digital-photography-school.com/shooting-details-tell-visual-story/
    Dylan Goldby wrote about different aspects of photography that can, not only make the picture better, but assist in making the story more clear. He explains the importance of “going wide”, “feel”, “light”, and “focus”.

    https://snapshot.canon-asia.com/article/en/camera-basics-14-position-and-angle
    This article shows the different positions (high. eye-level, and low) and angles (high, eye-level, and low) to use in photography. It also shows changes in perspective that creates a better photograph composition.

  7. Best place to hike

    1/// 1st person accounts:

    Yellow stone National park Quotes:

    1“Glacier National Park Press Kit.” National Park Service,www.nps.gov/glac/learn/news/upload/press_quotes.pdf.

    Bill Gilbert likes the fact that this national park does not have a single representative site for it to be well known but instead, it represents the pure beauty of nature

    2“John Muir’s Thought on Glacier National Park.” Glacier Bear Retreats, 13 Sept. 2013,
    glacierbearretreat.com/john-muirs-thought-on-glacier-national-park/.

    John Muri explains that this national park is so relaxing because of the Thousands of God’s wild blessings that are poured on you. he states that any stress will be out of your mind and that all burdens or anything else, your body will set free and let go.

    3payne, Stephanie. “Glacier National Park Quotes.” Good Reads,
    http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/tag/glacier-national-park.

    Stephanie Payne states in her quote that the Glacier National Park “in Montana is steadfastly considered to be one of the most beautiful places in the country”. Stefanie stated this in the book “The Great American Roadtrip”.
    2/// Case Studies/Examples:
    1ST
    2ND
    3RD

    3/// Academic journals (i.e. Google Scholar)
    Long-duration Drought Variability and Impacts on Ecosystem Services: A Case Study from Glacier National Park, Montana
    Gregory Pederson-Stephen Gray-Daniel Fagre-Lisa Graumlich – Earth Interactions – 2006

    Explains how over the summer weather will be. They did some research on it and wrote a journal about it.

    2ND
    3RD

    4/// Experts
    4Hall, Myrna H. P., and Daniel B. Fagre. “Article Navigation Modeled Climate-Induced Glacier Change in Glacier National Park, 1850–2100.” Article Navigation Modeled Climate-Induced Glacier Change in Glacier National Park, 1850–2100, American Institute of Biological Science, 1 Feb. 2003, academic.oup.com/bioscience/article/53/2/131/254976.

    Both of the scientist study mountain ecosystem responses to climatic variability, including long-term changes driving glacial retreat, shifting treelines, and high-elevation biodiversity. Takes about methods of research and types of data. At the end of all of this, you will find charts giving numerical data sets.

    2ND

    5/// Historical (i.e. Archives, Books)
    5“History and Culture.” National Park Service, 24 Sept. 2016, http://www.nps.gov/glac/learn/historyculture/index.htm.

    On this page, there are a lot of pages containing multiple types of informational articles talking about the history and culture of this Glacier. Some things it talks about are the people that used to live there, places to visit or collection of clothes representing the park. This Website belongs to the national park and therefore belongs under this section.

    2ND

  8. Inquiry Question: How do you maintain stamina during a long hike?

    https://www.active.com/outdoors/articles/3-simple-ways-to-improve-your-hiking-endurance
    According to this article, in order to maintain stamina during hikes, you must build up your endurance and strength, by taking practice hikes (short and long weekend hikes), staying active in the offseason (snowshoeing, skiing, indoor rock climbing), and focusing on overall strength (cardio intervals, basic strength training). Building stamina before and after the trekking season are the most important steps towards being able to make it through a long hike and get an active workout. Patrick McCrann, founder of Performance Training Systems, stated that “there is no magical fix for getting fit. You need a plan that you follow day after day to build up fitness. That way you don’t end up feeling overwhelmed.”

    Sanders, Jessica. “3 Simple Ways to Improve Your Hiking Endurance.” ACTIVE.com, Active.com, 10 Nov. 2015, http://www.active.com/outdoors/articles/3-simple-ways-to-improve-your-hiking-endurance.

    https://www.backpacker.com/trips/how-to-build-hiking-endurance
    This magazine explains how to build endurance and stamina during your hike by increasing the length of your cardiovascular workouts (30-50 minutes; build to 75). On weekends prepare to go on power hikes of 4 to 5 hours. Make sure to take breaks and to feed fuel to your body by a bringing food such as a sandwich, sports drinks, or an energy bar. In order to build your endurance, it is crucial that you mix up your workouts. Variety in your workouts to avoid repetitive stress injury and strengthen muscle stability.

    Soles, Clyde. “How to Build Hiking Endurance.” Backpacker, 26 Feb. 2008, http://www.backpacker.com/trips/how-to-build-hiking-endurance.

    https://blog.myfitnesspal.com/6-ways-to-improve-your-hiking-stamina/
    This article explains in order to build endurance and stamina during your hike, you must run/walk, start weight training, try hill intervals, increase your exercise frequency, work on your breathing technique, and build mental toughness. Building strength in the legs and the core is important when hiking. Squats, deadlifts, push ups, and yoga are exercises that help with stamina. Increasing the frequency of your workouts helps improve your stamina. Increasing this frequency can help with your overall fitness. Make sure to take deeper breaths to help prevent fatigue and keep pushing up the trail to get more oxygen to your muscles.

    Lindsay, Marc. “6 Ways to Improve Your Hiking Stamina | MyFitnessPal.” Under Armour, 30 July 2018, blog.myfitnesspal.com/6-ways-to-improve-your-hiking-stamina/.

    https://commons.erau.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1139&context=edt
    Based on this academic journal, researchers studied the effects of pack weights can help with endurance and stamina during a hike. Hikers spend many days in bad weather, deal with physical injuries, and sometimes sickness. Every day to the hiker can be a physical struggle. Hikers are not properly prepared to deal with weather changes, hunger, water filtration, and terrain. Many hikers do not do the proper logistical planning and tend to over pack. Reducing the weight of the pack you bring is necessary to maintain stamina and not be held down throughout the hike. Common injuries reported from long-distance hikers are musculoskeletal injuries which include acute joint pain, numbness, back pain, tendonitis, stress fractures, and rucksack palsy.

    Thoms, Anthony T. “Figure 2f from: Irimia R, Gottschling M (2016) Taxonomic Revision of Rochefortia Sw. (Ehretiaceae, Boraginales). Biodiversity Data Journal 4: e7720. https://Doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.4.e7720.” Effects of Pack Weight on Endurance of Long-Distance Hikers, 2013, doi:10.3897/bdj.4.e7720.figure2f.

    https://bearfoottheory.com/improve-hiking-lung-capacity/
    This article speaks in first person. The author is explaining her struggles with maintaining stamina and what she did to endure hikes and build strength. According to the National Institute of Health, “in a resting state, you breathe on average, 15 times per minute.” When hiking, your breathing increases to 40-60 times per minute to keep your muscles working. Ways to improve your lung capacity include, strengthening your muscles, focusing on your breathing, hike more, and make sure to be prepared to encounter thinner air at higher altitudes.

    Bonnie, et al. “4 Ways to Improve Your Hiking Lung Capacity.” Bearfoot Theory, 4 Oct. 2018, bearfoottheory.com/improve-hiking-lung-capacity/.

    https://trailtopeak.com/2015/12/14/3-track-exercises-to-build-strength-and-endurance-for-the-mountains/
    In this article, Drew Robinson explains how he maintain stamina and what exercises help build strength and endurance. These exercises include hurdle circuit, sprint circuit, and bleacher’s circuit steps and benefits. These 3 track exercises help with endurance. Another major component of my sprinting routine is bounding. Bounding helps build phenomenal balance and power in your leg muscles, while also improving your cardiovascular strength.

    Robinson, Drew. “3 Track Exercises To Build Strength And Endurance For The Mountains.” Trail to Peak, 14 Dec. 2015, trailtopeak.com/2015/12/14/3-track-exercises-to-build-strength-and-endurance-for-the-mountains/.

    https://sectionhiker.com/unstable-and-imbalanced-a-hikers-workout/
    This article (written in the first person) talks about a hiker’s workout and routine to maintain stamina and build physical strength. She explains how hiking, especially with a heavy backpack, requires a lot of strength, endurance, coordination, and agility. Many gym workouts isolate specific muscle groups using machines that lock you into a rigid pose and eliminate assistance from other muscle groups. However, what they fail to do is to train the coordination of all of your parts and stimulate the neuromuscular pathways that help us learn and adapt the complex choreography of movements required for locomotion. To counter this, she does a lot of compound exercises that combine movements from multiple muscle groups at the same time, or in sequence. This leads to a much more efficient workout time-wise, and provides a cardio benefit as well because it keeps her heart rate up. In addition,she also add in props like the Bosu Ball, stability ball, medicine balls, and spongy surfaces to add more instability to my routine. She also does a lot of exercises while standing on one leg to improve her balance while carrying a load.

    Werner, Philip. “Unstable and Imbalanced – A Hiker’s Workout.” Section Hikers Backpacking Blog, 4 Oct. 2017, sectionhiker.com/unstable-and-imbalanced-a-hikers-workout/.

    https://www.mensjournal.com/adventure/best-workout-hikers-stronger-legs-joints/
    This journal explains the best strength workouts for hikers to maintain stamina. “Making sure your body’s prepared requires training each of those different characteristics and attributes to make sure your body is ready to handle the different stresses,” says Joel Seedman, a strength and performance specialist and owner of Advanced Human Performance in Atlanta, GA. Weighted Step up, Bulgarian Split Squat, Single-Leg Glute Bridge, Single-Leg Romanian Deadlift, Goblet Squat, Single-Arm Plank, Standing Single-Arm Cable Row, and Single-Leg push ups are some of the exercises that help with endurance.

    Smith, Brittany. “The Best Workout for Hikers: How to Get Stronger Legs and Joints.” Men’s Journal, 22 May 2018, http://www.mensjournal.com/adventure/best-workout-hikers-stronger-legs-joints/.

    https://scholar.ufs.ac.za/handle/11660/9041
    This journal includes self-reported fitness levels, actual fitness levels and recorded energy expenditure on graded hiking trails. Significant predictors of exertion during hiking could be identified, using simple pre-hike fitness tests. These observations were robust to different methods of analysis. Conclusion: Simple, pre-hike fitness tests can be used to predict exertion on hiking trails with known ratings. The results of such predictions can be used to recommend hiking trails to hikers with varying fitness levels for safe use.

    Coetzee, and Brenda Audrey. “Self-Reported Fitness Levels, Actual Fitness Levels and Recorded Energy Expenditure on Graded Hiking Trails.” KovsieScholar Home, University of the Free State, 1 Jan. 1970, scholar.ufs.ac.za/handle/11660/9041.

    https://www.backpacker.com/skills/mountain-guide-secrets
    This article provides 38 hiking and climbing tips from outdoor professionals who have studied endurance and stamina during strenuous amounts of hiking and exercise. Get ready faster, build your endurance, pack for density, dial in your gear, bring less fuel, get motivated, remember why you came, carry less water, get the perfect jacket or hoodie, pack Miso, etc.

    Alvarez, Ted. “Secrets of the Guides: 38 Tips From Outdoor Pros.” Backpacker, 17 Aug. 2017, http://www.backpacker.com/skills/mountain-guide-secrets.

    https://www.webmd.com/fitness-exercise/features/5-ways-to-boost-your-stamina#1
    This article explains 5 ways to boost your stamina. It states to reduce recovery time and resistance. It’s important to build muscle endurance to limit your recovery time between sets to 30 to 90 seconds. Make sure to continuously do circuit workouts. Maintain balance by cutting your recovery time and try pushing yourself during workouts but not to bring too much stress to your body. “There is a time and a place for keeping a steady pace, but if you really want to increase stamina, then increase the intensity,” advises Giovinazzo. Whatever [you do], you’ll know you’ve increased the intensity when you’re out of breath and feel that good burning sensation in whatever muscles are being worked.”

    Voltolina, Vanessa. “5 Ways to Boost Your Stamina.” WebMD, WebMD, http://www.webmd.com/fitness-exercise/features/5-ways-to-boost-your-stamina#1.

    “The Pursuit of Endurance: Harnessing the Record-Breaking Power of Strength and Resilience” By: Jennifer Pharr Davis.

    Jennifer Pharr Davis, a record holder of the FKT (fastest known time) on the Appalachian Trail, reveals the secrets and habits behind endurance as she chronicles her incredible accomplishments in the world of endurance hiking, backpacking, and trail running. With a storyteller’s ear for fascinating detail and description, Davis takes readers along as she trains and sets her record, analyzing and trail-testing the theories and methodologies espoused by her star-studded roster of mentors. She distills complex rituals and histories into easy-to-understand tips and action items that will help you take perseverance to the next level. “The Pursuit of Endurance” empowers readers to unlock phenomenal endurance. “After setting a record, I was frequently asked if it was more a challenge of the body or of the mind. Or as one journalist put it succinctly, ‘Is it more physical or mental?’ It’s hard to say. It’s hard to say. My answers tended to vacillate and contradict themselves.”

    DAVIS, JENNIFER PHARR. PURSUIT OF ENDURANCE: Harnessing the Record -Breaking Power of Strength and Resilience. PENGUIN BOOKS, 2018.

    “North” By: Scott Jurek
    Scott Jurek is one of the world’s best known and most beloved ultrarunners. Renowned for his remarkable endurance and speed, accomplished on a vegan diet, he’s finished first in nearly all of ultrarunning elite events over the course of his career. But after two decades of racing, training, speaking, and touring, Jurek felt an urgent need to discover something new about himself. He embarked on a wholly unique challenge, one that would force him to grow as a person and as an athlete: breaking the speed record for the Appalachian Trail. North is the story of the 2,189 mile journey that nearly shattered him.

    JUREK, SCOTT. NORTH: Finding My Way While Running the Appalachian Trail. ARROW BOOKS LTD, 2018.

  9. What are the disadvantages of hiking if any?
    Jenkins, Alexis. “What Are the Benefits & Disadvantages of Hiking?” LIVESTRONG.COM, Leaf Group, 11 Sept. 2017, http://www.livestrong.com/article/511603-what-are-the-benefits-disadvantages-of-hiking/.
    This article highlights the advantages and disadvantages of hiking. It builds into my inquiry question since it addresses it directly by pointing out the disadvantages of hiking.

    “The Benefits and Disadvantages of Hiking.” RangerMade, 22 Apr. 2018, rangermade.net/hiking/the-benefits-and-disadvantages-of-hiking.
    This article highlights other disadvantages of hiking such as long time away from family and the costs of hiking.

    Hike Safe :: It’s Your Responsibility – Injuries & Afflictions, http://www.hikesafe.com/index.php?page=injuries-and-afflictions-on-the-trail.
    Points out one of the main problems during hiking, which is injuries. It’s a disadvantage and it provides examples of what you can do to prevent accidents and injuries.

    Parker, Vicki. “What’s Killing America’s Hikers?” SkyAboveUs, SkyAboveUs, 26 Feb. 2017, skyaboveus.com/climbing-hiking/Whats-Killing-Americas-Hikers.
    Emphasizes the number of people who die each year from hiking. It also points out the reason why people are dying, whether it’s due to them being alone or forgetting supplies.

    “Extreme Hiking.” Extreme Hiking – Extreme Conditions Or Long Distance Hiking, http://www.comehike.com/outdoors/extreme_hiking.php.
    This article is about extreme hiking which is what the title suggest, hiking to the extreme. It’s a problem since it can lead to death and it’s dangerous.

    “7 Health problems that can occur while hiking” Volyse http://www.volyse.com/index.php/2017/10/17/7-health-problems-that-can-occur-while-hiking/
    This article emphasizes what can go wrong with your health when going hiking. It builds into the disadvantages since it impacts your health.

    “New York, NY.” 8 Risks That Spring Hikers Should Be Aware of before Hitting the Trail, http://www.accuweather.com/en/weather-news/8-risks-of-spring-hikes-and-how-to-protect-yourself/70004317.
    Gives the reader an insight of what can happen during a hike. Being given this insight, hikers should know what to expect during a hike. It points out the disadvantages during a hike.

  10. how many miles do you have to walk?
    A good average distance for hiking is 10 miles (16 kilometers) per day because it lowers heart disease.https://adventure.howstuffworks.com/outdoor-activities/hiking/backpacking2.htm

    Hiking is good because it improves your blood pressure and blood sugar levels.https://www.webmd.com/fitness-exercise/features/hiking-body-mind

    Hiking sothes and clears mind.https://americanhiking.org/blog/hiking-natures-therapy/

    Hiking helps because it makes the brain healthy.http://time.com/4820394/hiking-walking-mind-body-workout/

    Hiking is simple and cheap.
    https://www.thoughtco.com/reasons-why-you-should-go-hiking-1766307

    Hiking helps burn calories.https://www.livestrong.com/article/556850-ten-reasons-why-hiking-is-good-for-you/

    Hiking helps solve diabiettes.https://thehikingandcamping.weebly.com/blog/the-importance-of-hiking

    Hiking put nature into perspectives.https://www.mindbodygreen.com/0-17361/6-reasons-hiking-is-good-for-your-body-mind-soul.html

    Hiking keeps you fit and makes you happy.http://theutopianlife.com/2017/12/09/5-reasons-why-hiking-is-good-for-you/

    Hiking helps with natural stress relief.https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/health-benefits-of-hiking-raise-your-heart-rate-and-your-mood-2016092810414

    Hiking clears your brain and boosts your brain.https://www.hillwalktours.com/walking-hiking-blog/benefits-of-hiking/

    Hiking helps you mentally and physically.https://www.hercampus.com/school/ship/hiking-why-it-should-be-important-everyone

    Hiking helps lower risk of dying young.https://www.goodhiker.com/2011/05/25/health-benefits-hiking/

  11. Jackie Nugent recommended for hike food to bring
    • “Trail mix
    • Nuts, seeds, nut-based bars or nut butter packs
    • Dried or freeze-dried fruits and veggies
    • Energy bars, chews or gels
    • Granola or granola bars
    • Ready-made tuna salad pouches
    • Whole-grain tortillas
    • Poultry, salmon or meat jerky” “5 Food Tips for Camping and Hiking.” Eat Right. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics., http://www.eatright.org/food/planning-and-prep/snack-and-meal-ideas/food-tips-for-camping-and-hiking. It’s vital for beginner hikers to know what makes good snacks on a hike. Without the nutrients to make up for the energy spent the hiker could suffer from an empty stomach.

    “Hiking pants are lightweight, quick-drying pants (made from various types of nylon) that are ideal for hiking and other outdoor pursuits. Hiking pants are lightweight, come with plenty of pockets, have no bulk and dry fast. Even better, many hiking pants are “convertible hiking pants,” which means the legs can zip off—turning the pants into comfortable hiking shorts.” “A Guide to Hiking Pants.” The Hiking Pants Guide : The Best Pants for Hiking & Backpacking, http://www.bigskyfishing.com/hiking-gear/hiking-pants.php. The new hiking pants were tested and proven better for hiking than blue jeans as they are more comfortable, allow air slip through and let skin breath. For new hikers who may not have the hiking pants at least should be aware that blue jeans are still not the best.

    “To create an adjustable loop that stays in place, use the taut-line hitch. This is the knot to use for staking out the guy lines of your tent.” “How to Tie a Taut-Line Hitch.” Boys’ Life Magazine, 27 Jan. 2017, boyslife.org/video-audio/147978/how-to-tie-a-taut-line-hitch/.The scout magazine discuss how to tie the taut line hitch. For beginners on a longer hike that would involve camping it is important to practice knots such as the tout line for they are necessary in making a superb campsite.

    Steve goes over the best way from his personal experience on how people could get started with hiking. He recommends for all hikers to “Regardless of where you are going, let somebody else know where are when – if you are out hiking alone, take the time to email or call somebody and let him know that you’ll be hiking and when you expect to be back.” “A Beginner’s Guide to Hiking.” Nerd Fitness, 9 July 2018, http://www.nerdfitness.com/blog/hiking/. This is important because if you get lost, hurt or your arm gets stuck under a rock people would come looking for you in the area. In not you will be faced with death or cutting part of your arm off.

    “According to study findings, five strategies were employed by solo hikers to negotiate objective threats and perceived fears including: avoiding perceived threats, modifying their participation in solo hiking, using aids or protective devices, expanding their knowledge or skills, and employing a psychological approach.”Coble, Theresa G., et al. “Hiking Alone: Understanding Fear, Negotiation Strategies and Leisure Experience.” Journal of Leisure Research, vol. 35, no. 1, 2003, pp. 1–22., doi:10.18666/jlr-2003-v35-i1-608.
    These studies are important for preparing for a hike because if the hiker knows how to deal with their fears they could prepare to deal with them. For example with fear of getting lost the potential hiker could practice using a map and compass.
    “Across both summer and fall, the most common information source used was the Park Guide, which is a newspaper-style brochure distributed to visitors as they enter the Park. During the summer months, the headlines on the Park Guide read “Heat Kills, Hike Smart” and depict a schematic pictorial of a tired hiker sweating from an apparently exhaustive hike.” “Figure 2f from: Irimia R, Gottschling M (2016) Taxonomic Revision of Rochefortia Sw. (Ehretiaceae, Boraginales). Biodiversity Data Journal 4: e7720. https://Doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.4.e7720.” doi:10.3897/bdj.4.e7720.figure2f.The Grand Canyon national park uses magazines to educate its many hikers on how to prepare for a hike in different seasons. If someone is planning to hike there in preparation it’s a good idea to check out their newspaper to have the correct equipment.
    “We find that as experience is gained, hikers use less equipment and adapt equipment they use to more closely meet their needs. Our results suggest that experienced thru-hikers use their knowledge and experience to substitute for equipment in a way that transcends their awareness of equipment.” This is important for more experienced hikers who are preparing. The need of less gear for an well-known spot could improve the same old hiking experience because there’s less weight to carry and the hiker could easily power through.

  12. 1st Person Accounts
    https://www.nerdfitness.com/blog/hiking/
    This article talks about how hiking is good for your health and how to get started.
    https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/health-benefits-of-hiking-raise-your-heart-rate-and-your-mood-2016092810414
    This website talks about the benefits of hiking and where to find places to hike near you.
    https://www.backpacker.com/skills/7-tips-from-female-solo-hikers
    This article includes tips on hiking from hikerksk themselves.
    Experts
    https://www.backpacker.com/skills/mountain-guide-secrets
    This website includes tips on hiking from experts
    https://www.mercurynews.com/2018/08/02/hiking-near-wildfire-zones-what-to-know-before-dashing-up-that-trail/
    This article gives advice from experts as to how to hike around wildfires.
    Historical
    https://raftrek.com/outdoor-travel/short-history-hiking/
    This website gives the history of hiking
    https://americanhiking.org/national-trails-day/national-trails-day-history/
    This website also give history and important dates about hiking

    Works Cited
    Alvarez, Ted. “Secrets of the Guides: 38 Tips From Outdoor Pros.” Backpacker, 17 Aug. 2017, http://www.backpacker.com/skills/mountain-guide-secrets.
    “A Beginner’s Guide to Hiking.” Nerd Fitness, 9 July 2018, http://www.nerdfitness.com/blog/hiking/.
    Corliss, Julie. “Health Benefits of Hiking: Raise Your Heart Rate and Your Mood.” Harvard Health Blog, 23 Sept. 2016, http://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/health-benefits-of-hiking-raise-your-heart-rate-and-your-mood-2016092810414.
    “Hiking History | Active and Adventure Holidays Croatia | Raftrek Travel.” Raftrek Adventure Travel, 9 Mar. 2018, raftrek.com/outdoor-travel/short-history-hiking/.
    Kwak-Hefferan, Elisabeth. “18 Tips From Female Solo Hikers.” Backpacker, 15 Sept. 2015, http://www.backpacker.com/skills/7-tips-from-female-solo-hikers.
    Kwak-Hefferan, Elisabeth. “18 Tips From Female Solo Hikers.” Backpacker, 15 Sept. 2015, http://www.backpacker.com/skills/7-tips-from-female-solo-hikers.
    “National Trails Day® History.” American Hiking Society, 9 Aug. 2018, americanhiking.org/national-trails-day/national-trails-day-history/.

  13. Lambert, J. (2013). Digital Storytelling. New York: Routledge.
    This ACADEMIC JOURNAL shows how digital storytelling captures lives and creates a better community.

    https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/7401742/digitalstorytelling.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A&Expires=1541167241&Signature=T2TgvmuLgsDxtjbXB0y%2BgRS0a38%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DDigital_storytelling_a_meaningful_techno.pdf
    This CASE STUDY expresses how digital storytelling is important because engages student learning through technology.

    http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.411.3607&rep=rep1&type=pdf
    This 1ST PERSON ACCOUNT emphasizes the importance of the process that is included in digital storytelling.

    http://digitalstorytelling.coe.uh.edu/page.cfm?id=27&cid=27&sublinkid=30
    The ACADEMIC JOURNAL addresses the importance of digital storytelling and its contribution to education through its use. Digital storytelling is also important because it works as an effective learning tool.

    https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1125504.pdf
    This EXPERT described the importance of digital storytelling with facts he expressed that digital storytelling is important because it has the power to support teaching and learning.

    https://education.cu-portland.edu/blog/classroom-resources/digital-storytelling/
    This EXPERT expresses that digital storytelling is important because it allows students passion for technology can fuel their education and learning.

    https://repository.asu.edu/attachments/93320/content//tmp/package-fD9mbW/Gordon_asu_0010E_11221.pdf
    This CASE STUDY is three teachers facilitating digital storytelling with students for the first time and records the effects in a positive way.

  14. The best place to hike

    1/// 1st person accounts:

    Yellow Stone National park Quotes:

    1“Glacier National Park Press Kit.” National Park Service,www.nps.gov/glac/learn/news/upload/press_quotes.pdf.

    Bill Gilbert likes the fact that this national park does not have a single representative site for it to be well known but instead, it represents the pure beauty of nature

    2“John Muir’s Thought on Glacier National Park.” Glacier Bear Retreats, 13 Sept. 2013,
    glacierbearretreat.com/john-muirs-thought-on-glacier-national-park/.

    John Muri explains that this national park is so relaxing because of the Thousands of God’s wild blessings that are poured on you. he states that any stress will be out of your mind and that all burdens or anything else, your body will set free and let go.

    3payne, Stephanie. “Glacier National Park Quotes.” Good Reads,
    http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/tag/glacier-national-park.

    Stephanie Payne states in her quote that the Glacier National Park “in Montana is steadfastly considered to be one of the most beautiful places in the country”. Stefanie stated this in the book “The Great American Roadtrip”.
    2/// Case Studies/Examples:
    1Reardon, A., et al. “Natural Avalanches and Transportation: A Case Study from Glacier National Park, Montana, USA.” Proceedings of the 2004 International Snow Science Workshop, Jackson Hole, Wyoming, Proceedings of the 2004 International Snow Science Workshop, Jackson Hole, Wyoming, 1 Jan. 1970, arc.lib.montana.edu/snow-science/item/1139.

    *****
    2Pederson, Gregory T., et al. “Long-Duration Drought Variability and Impacts on Ecosystem Services: A Case Study from Glacier National Park, Montana.” Earth Interactions, Earth Interactions, 2006, pdfs.semanticscholar.org/93c6/3d49b84c6e1d14152dfe0d9e55d5c356fa81.pdf.
    *****
    3Nguyen, T. (2018). System Dynamics Simulation for Park Management: A Case Study of Glacier National Park, Montana. [online] Research.libraries.wsu.edu. Available at: https://research.libraries.wsu.edu/xmlui/handle/2376/4096 [Accessed 3 Nov. 2018].
    *****
    3/// Academic journals (i.e. Google Scholar)
    Long-duration Drought Variability and Impacts on Ecosystem Services: A Case Study from Glacier National Park, Montana
    Gregory Pederson-Stephen Gray-Daniel Fagre-Lisa Graumlich – Earth Interactions – 2006

    Explains how over the summer weather will be. They did some research on it and wrote a journal about it.

    2Brett, Melissa. “Glacier Inventories and Change in Glacier National Park.” Jan. 2000, doi:10.15760/etd.6241.

    talks about the animals and how they live. also talks about the variety of animals that live in glacier national park

    3“Brochures and Publications.” National Parks Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, http://www.nps.gov/glac/planyourvisit/brochures.htm.

    this is a journal brochure that lets people know who and what you can find at the park letting me know that this park is very well fit for people to travel and hike in.

    4/// Experts
    4Hall, Myrna H. P., and Daniel B. Fagre. “Article Navigation Modeled Climate-Induced Glacier Change in Glacier National Park, 1850–2100.” Article Navigation Modeled Climate-Induced Glacier Change in Glacier National Park, 1850–2100, American Institute of Biological Science, 1 Feb. 2003, academic.oup.com/bioscience/article/53/2/131/254976.

    Both of the scientist study mountain ecosystem responses to climatic variability, including long-term changes driving glacial retreat, shifting treelines, and high-elevation biodiversity. Takes about methods of research and types of data. At the end of all of this, you will find charts giving numerical data sets.

    2https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/powerpost/wp/2017/07/20/climate-experts-pulled-from-glacier-national-park-tour-with-facebook-ceo-mark-zuckerberg/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.e8b40a58b431

    talks about a weather expert at the park, who looks at the air and tests it for any negative health affecting air pollutants.

    5/// Historical (i.e. Archives, Books)
    1“History and Culture.” National Park Service, 24 Sept. 2016, http://www.nps.gov/glac/learn/historyculture/index.htm.

    On this page, there are a lot of pages containing multiple types of informational articles talking about the history and culture of this Glacier. Some things it talks about are the people that used to live there, places to visit or collection of clothes representing the park. This Website belongs to the national park and therefore belongs under this section.

    2https://www.fodors.com/world/north-america/usa/montana/glacier-national-park

    this is a website where an expert gives ideas of where to go in glacier national park. it is picked by experts who know the right paths for the right people.

  15. http://digitalwriting101.net/content/category/samples-graphic-storytelling/
    This is a collection of student samples of graphic stories. They all have different storylines, but they have one thing in common; their multiple points of view. Each of the little comic-like stories have a series of pictures that are all at different angles.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NPEIfNpTYaI
    In this video, Larry Jordan walks around a studio shoot and explains the different ways that they video tape. He shows all of the different cameras that they have, all set up at different angles and explains when each of the specific angles are used.

    https://www.poynter.org/news/how-journalists-can-improve-video-stories-shot-sequences
    This article explains that journalists would tell much better stories by adding shot sequences into their works. Having multiple shots, that are all of the same main idea but have different details and angles benefits a story greatly.

    its.ksbe.edu/dst/PDFs/Rubrics/rubric.pdf
    This is a rubric that has been made to evaluate and grade digital storytelling assignments. Although it does not flat-out give advice on what to do like the other articles, the grading subjects can be used to hint at how works should be created. For example, it has sections on camera technique and framing.

    https://www.mediacollege.com/video/camera/angles/
    In order to follow the idea that multiple camera angles should be used in a digital story, the different kind of camera angles need to be known. Thi article lists out five different types of camera angles that can be used in any storytelling piece.

    https://petapixel.com/2015/09/22/8-camera-angles-from-the-world-of-cinema-that-can-help-improve-your-photos/
    This article has a more extensive list of different camera angles and shots that show variety and technique while trying to tell a digital story. I has eight total and gives an example with each one.

    https://www.creativeplanetnetwork.com/news-features/understanding-how-different-camera-angles-impact-storytelling-616874
    This is a video where Darious Britt shows different camera angles and explains how they affect a narrative piece. He focuses on the emotions that can be conveyed depending on the camera angle that is being used.

  16. 1) If you’re heading out for a hike, long or short:

    – Let someone else know where you’ll be going, and agree on a time to check-in.

    – Pack for a number of different scenarios such as rain, heat, injury, or hunger.

    – Be sure your first aid kit has been replenished with any used/missing items.

    https://www.tetonsports.com/adventureblog/how-to-stay-safe-while-hiking/

    1) Hiking trails are usually marked with a difficulty level ranging from easy to extreme. Make sure that the hiking trail you choose is appropriate for everyone in your group, especially if you’re bringing children or dogs along.

    https://www.solvhealth.com/blog/10-ways-to-stay-safe-while-hiking-and-camping-2018-guide

    1) how many people are in your hiking party, their names, ages and any unique factors (medications taken, chronic diseases such as diabetes, or disabilities) equipment, gear and the amount of food and water you have with you description of clothing individuals are wearing

    http://www.hikesafe.com/index.php?page=leave-your-plans

    2) Bring the essentials. This is one steadfast rule that the majority of hikers will skimp on. Bringing 10 things with you, in the age of the minimalist hiker, seems wasteful and awkward, especially on shorter hikes. Skipping a few things might lighten your load, but it is important to bring what you might need and not what you know you will need.

    http://outdoor-society.com/how-to-stay-safe-while-hiking-11-easy-tips/

    2) If you think hikers are immune to heart attacks, you could be dead wrong. Cardiac arrest is the number three killer in the outdoors, and it’s responsible for half of all mountain-climbing fatalities. At home, keep bad cholesterol in check with a low-fat diet. Talk to your doctor about medication if food and exercise aren’t enough. Adjust your mileage goals to your age and fitness level–under-fit hikers were 27% more likely to suffer sudden cardiac arrest, according to the study. Heart attacks occur most often in the morning, says Dr. Ehrlich. Ease into your hiking day with frequent rests, especially if you’re gaining elevation.

    https://www.backpacker.com/survival/how-to-protect-your-heart-while-hiking

    2) Avoid emergencies by having the tools you need to turn the unexpected into an exciting part of your journey. Carry a map and compass and know how to use them. Bring a pocket knife, and put fire-starting supplies in a water proof container. Assume the weather will change — bring sun protection, rain gear, and extra layers for sudden cold.https://wilderness.org/article/tips-great-hiking

    3) While pre-hike preparation is essential to ensuring optimal results when it comes to hiking, the regular evaluation of physical and emotional status during the activity is also quite essential. Stopping to drink water—even if no signs of thirst are present—can be an effective way to prevent potentially life-threatening dehydration.

    http://www.walking-canes.net/walkingthetrail.aspx

    3) Sudden thunderstorms, unruly insects or animals and health hazards like dehydration and altitude sickness can all put a serious damper on what should be an amazing outdoor experience. Luckily there are ways to decrease the chances of camping dangers affecting your next trip. https://mashable.com/2015/06/12/camping-safety-tips/

    3) Wearing a blaze-orange-colored vest, hat, or pack cover is one of the most important things you can do to stay visible to hunters. It’s what hunters themselves wear for safety. If you don’t have any of these (although you should if you’re doing fall/winter hiking) make sure you wear bright colors and steer clear of earth tones. https://www.usatoday.com/story/travel/2013/09/24/hiking-hunting-season-safety-tips/2854437/

    4) Make sure you tell at least one person where you will be hiking, what time you left and when you are planning on returning. This will let people know where to find you should an emergency occur.https://www.channel3000.com/lifestyle/stay-safe-during-fall-hikes/803058390

    4) When hiking make sure you have the essentials, including: map, phone, food, water, basic first-aid supplies, extra clothes and a flashlight. https://www.channel3000.com/lifestyle/stay-safe-during-fall-hikes/803058390

    5) Walk cautiously until you are familiar with the trail conditions. It’s possible wet leaves, moist grass or even some snow on the trail could create slippery conditions. https://www.channel3000.com/lifestyle/stay-safe-during-fall-hikes/803058390
    5) During the fall months, there might be hunters in some wooded areas. Make sure you are aware of where you are walking and make sure you wear clothing that is visible to potential hunters.https://www.channel3000.com/lifestyle/stay-safe-during-fall-hikes/803058390

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