“Left Behind”: The Rapture (Laura Shores, Feb 23-March 1st Discussion)

My blog post is about the idea of the End Times/ the Rapture and how the “Left Behind” movie series views it.  “Left Behind” is a Christian based movie series that shows an idea of how the Bible portrays the End Times- what will happen during it and what will happen afterwards.

Here is a link to a short clip (6 minutes) from the first movie: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vXRrVrkFYlo

The Rapture is known as the beginning of the End Times, where the true Christians, or the “saved” people, will ascend up to Heaven to be with Jesus.  After this happens, there will be a 7 year period, called the “Tribulation”, where the first half is peaceful and it gives the “un- saved” people who did not already ascend up to Heaven, time to accept Jesus so that they too can join Him.  After the peaceful first half, this is when the “Great Tribulation” occurs, where the Antichrist comes, and people have the option to follow him or follow Jesus.  This is the last chance for the “un-saved” people to turn to Jesus and become saved.  This will not be a time of peace but rather a time of war and death, it is the end of the world as we know it, before the new heaven and the new earth are made.

This picture is a screenshot from the clip of the movie showing the clothes of the people that had ascended up to Heaven being left behind.  This shows that at this point, material and worldly things do not matter; the only thing that matters is the soul of the Christians, and whether they have accepted Jesus to be their personal Savior.

For a class reading, we covered some verses that briefly mentioned the Rapture times. Two that are relevant for this topic are verses 30 and 31 in Matthew 24. It states, “30 “Then will appear the sign of the Son of Man in heaven. And then all the peoples of the earth [a] will mourn when they see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of heaven, with power and great glory.[b] 31 And he will send his angels with a loud trumpet call, and they will gather his elect from the four winds, from one end of the heavens to the other.”  A few verses later, in Matthew 24:44, it states that no one knows the day and hour, so we should just be ready.  The main point that comes from this verse is that there is no reason to wait to accept Jesus into your life, especially when there are reasons given as to why we should do it sooner rather than later.

Discussion Question: According to the Bible, does it matter what hour or day the End Time/ Rapture comes?  While we are told that we do not know the time, we are told what happens when the time does come.  Does this seem fair to you? Why or why not?

Stop Trying to Make Church ‘Cool’ (Ashley Diaz, Feb 23-March 1st Discussion)

Rachel Evans of the Washington Post argues in her article “Want millennials back in the pews? Stop trying to make church ‘cool.’”, that attempts to make church cooler by many religious institutions of today, are driving millennials away. Church attendance by millennials has steadily decreased over the years, causing many churches to take business-like approaches to attracting back followers.

In her op-ed, Evans questions the effectiveness of these methods. Evans suggests that these tactics being used to help draw millennials back into church, have actually caused a bigger decrease in attendance. Research supports these claims, as Barna Group and the Cornerstone Knowledge Network have found that 67 percent of millennials prefer “traditional” churches to “trendy” churches. Further research shows that 77 percent of millennials choose a “sanctuary” formatted church over an “auditorium” formatted church.

This article shines a spotlight on the commercialization of today’s religious institutions, as many churches now have marketing campaigns, merchandise, and prize sweepstakes. Statistically speaking, the decline of church attendance by millennials is hard to dispute. And while the commercialization of religious institutions may be a cause of this, suggesting it to be the primary or only reason for this trend is premature. Commercializing religious institutions can be the cause of many conflicts of interest, and may possibly be the cause of a declining number of millennial visitors. But in today’s world, a world of instantly accessible information and computers.


Does the way the church reaches out to younger generations need to evolve with the times? Would you prefer the traditional and simple church or rather it be more modern and updated to todays world?

Work Cited:

Evans, Rachel. “Want Millennials Back in the Pews? Stop Trying to Make Church ‘cool.'” The Washington Post. WP Company, 30 Apr. 2015. Web. 22 Feb. 2017.


Presiding Over Same-Sex Marriages (Tham Huynh, Feb 23-March 1st Discussion)

You won’t believe the number of pastors forced to preside over same-sex marriages

Same-sex marriage was finalized in 2015 in the fifty of United States. For religious believers this type of marriage is not right because it always been taught that a man would marry a woman and that is the right way in life. A religion that had a significant conflict with the Christian Right seeing this as a wrong and sinful thing.

The reading I was looking at talked about how that pastor by law is being forced to marry the same-sex couple, or a legal measure will be taken against them. A pastor named Robert Jeffress of the First Baptist Church of Dallas said, “may mean we experience jail time…but as the scripture says, we ought to obey God rather than man, and that’s our choice.” (Para. 3) Showing that if this law is enforced by the government, it had no meaning because the words of God is more important than obeying the law that is written.

Another Baptist pastor Rick Scarborough also agrees with the whole “accepting to pay any fine rather than marrying gay marriage.” (Para 4) Yet, as for the number that pastors, priests, and religious leaders had been forced to marry same-sex, there is none.

In the Bible, there are many sayings about a man being with a woman “that is why a man leaves his father and mother and is united to his wife, and they become one flesh.” (Gen 2:24) The quote shows that once a man is all grow to leave his family a wife will become with him as a whole like you missing pieces put together to become one piece. The Bible taught that having an attraction to the same sex is ok, and that is fine, but if that attraction turns into an intercourse it’s a prohibited in the teaching. There is an example that is showing somewhere in the Bible “I grieve for you, Jonathan my brother; you were very dear to me. Your love for me was wonderful, more wonderful than that of women” (2 Samuel 1:26). The teaching of marriage in the Bible always refer to a man and a woman like how God created Eve (a woman) for Adam (a man), yet this isn’t a particular teaching that says that same gender can’t be together. Many of the sayings told us that to love everyone just like how God is the creation and father of all us “this is the greatest and first commandment. And a second is like it: ‘You shall love your neighbor as yourself.” (Matthew 22:38-39) Treat other how you would treat yourself, and it’s not your job to say who is wrong leave it in the hand of God because he knows what to do.


What is your opinion on same-sex marriage?  What is  your thought about same-sex marriage being sinful? Do you a agree that marrying someone you love is more important than the gender the person is? Even when same-sex marriage is legal why do you think they still have challenges they have to face?

Instructor’s Note: This is obviously a “hot topic,” but an important one to discuss! In your discussion, be sure to be respectful of your classmates and of both sides of this issue. Focus on the theological ideas and issues discussed in class, especially considering our understanding of Scripture and the Vatican II document Dei Verbum. How are we to interpret these individual passages from the Bible? Is there an obvious or definitive message from the Bible on homosexuality and same-sex marriage? What do we need to ask of the biblical authors to better understand their intentions?

Work Cited:

“What Does the Bible Say About Homosexuality?” What Does the Bible Say About Homosexuality? N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Feb. 2017.
Arel, Dan. “You Won’t Believe the Number of Pastors Forced to Preside over Same-sex Marriages.” Danthropology. Patheos, 23 June 2016. Web. 21 Feb. 2017.

Passion of the Christ / How does one obtain salvation? (Anthony Perozich, For 2/16-2/22 Discussion)

Passion of the Christ Video Link

The Passion of the Christ is a film that was produced in 2004 and was directed by Mel Gibson. It is a movie that depicts most of the life of Jesus. The link that I have included on the movie is a short clip that simply shows the scene of Jesus rising from the dead. According to the Bible, Jesus died and rose again after three days. He died and rose again to provide the way of salvation. The topic of salvation will be discussed in this blog post.

In class we discussed salvation, in the book of Matthew; what does that mean? What does it mean to be a Christian? Does it mean you just go to church, or maybe be a good person? What does it mean to be “saved”?

In life I’ve had these same questions and have discussed them with others including some in this class. I have found an answer and I think the supporting video below does a good job of explaining it. I hope that the video and the written description will assist in answering some of those questions.


Several topics in our class that have been taught on include: sin, creation, and the difference “between” the New and Old Testament God. We have discussed that the original sin and how it was committed by Adam and Eve. We have discussed according to the Catholic faith that humans are born good. Whether you believe that or not, the Bible states that “All have sinned and come short of the glory of God” Romans 3:23. Whether we are born good or not, may be a good question; but at some point, we have all sinned and that’s what we need to be saved from. A quick definition of sin would be doing anything that the God says not to do. So if you have lied, stolen, cheated, or many other things then you have sinned. Who hasn’t right? We all have. That is the reason that we need to be saved. Because we have all sinned and “fallen short” we need intervention or a mediator. And that mediator is Jesus Christ. And He became that mediator when He died on the cross for all of our sins and then rose again.

As mentioned, one of the topics discussed in class is the difference between the New and Old Testament God. We said that many Christians see that the Old Testament God is an “angry” God or a “just” God. We saw that many Christians see the New Testament God as a loving or caring God. But when it comes down to it, He is the same God, according to the Bible. “Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today and forever.” Hebrews 13:8. Although He may not be manifesting in the exact same way He is still the same being. As human beings we may not be able to understand the full scope of how someone or something can be all loving and all just and all kind all at the same time. For example, like mentioned in the supporting video, if one hasn’t asked forgiveness of their sins and turned from their evil ways then that individual goes to hell, according to the Bible. II Thessalonians 1:8-9 “In flaming fire taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ: Who shall be punished with everlasting destruction (referring to hell) from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power;” Revelation 20:15 “And whosoever was not found written in the book of life was cast into the lake of fire.” Those are just two of the many verse which talk about hell and who goes there; and both of those verses are found in the New Testament.

Ok, so we see what the Bible says about hell; but how does one get to heaven, or obtain salvation? This is the good news. Just like stated in the supporting video, all we have to do is to ask Jesus to forgive us of all of our sins; turn from our old ways; and live a life according to the Bible, the way that Jesus wants us to live. John 3:16 “For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life.” Acts 2:21 “And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord shall be saved.” Acts 3:19 “Repent, then, and turn to God, so that your sins may be wiped out…” These last few verses are also found in the New Testament.

In review, we saw that the Bible states that God is and always will be the same. The explanation of salvation was given. Hopefully the reader has clear or clearer understanding on how a person goes to heaven according to the Bible verses and depicted in the video.
Questions for Discussion:
How do you feel about what the Bible says concerning salvation? Do you agree or disagree? Was this blog post helpful?

Works Cited:
BibleGateway. (n.d.). Retrieved February 13, 2017, from https://www.biblegateway.com/
D. (2009, November 24). The Passion of the Christ – Last Scene. Retrieved February 13, 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qKSe9PE002o
Soteris1. “The Good News † The Gospel Message.” YouTube. YouTube, 17 Oct. 2011. Web. 13 Feb. 2017.

“Clockwork Origin” (Becky Lake, For 2/16-2/22 Discussion)

This Youtube link comes from a Futurama episode, Clockwork Origin. (The full episode is on Netflix if you want to get the full experience-I highly recommend it.) In this episode, scientist Farnsworth challenges a fellow scientist, Dr.Banjo on the realities of evolution; Farnsworth presents all this evidence supporting evolution, but Dr. Banjo focuses on the one missing link in the chain. Even after proving the existence of the final link, this Dr.Banjo still supports creationism over evolution. In a fit of frustration. Dr. Farnsworth leaves the planets, settling on a deserted planet with toxic water. Over the course of a few days, Farnsworth’s nanobots, designed to purify the water, begin to evolve themselves and eventually take on human, robotic form (with reason and speech). When Farnsworth presents himself as their creator, the robots reject the notion in favor of evolution.

Picture Credit: Internet (pulled from the actual episode)

     Futurama offers a very unique (and humorous) position on the controversy of this ongoing debate between creation and evolution; it also contains some contradictions. Dr.Banjo accepts evolution because of the robot evolution evidence and Farnsworth acknowledges a creator after being a creator himself, seeing the ability for creation and evolution to exist side-by-side. In the case of the modern world, we don’t have an easy example to prove a creator; scientist still reject the idea of a creator and some Christians still reject evolution.

In my opinion we should approach the Bible with a critical approach, as suggested in “Dei Verbum”. When understanding the first chapters of the Bible, we shouldn’t take the information literally, we need to consider the conditions and current understandings of the human authors. At the creation of the Bible, human authors had little knowledge of the scientific nature of the world. It was only until more modern times that humans could understand the complexities in the universe.

Question for Discussion:
Is it possible to believe both creation and evolution when the Bible clearly states that humans were created in seven days? If God (the Creator) were to appear in modern times would people believe Him or would they reject Him just like the robots with Farnsworth?

The Refugee Ban (Christine Sniegowski, 2/17-2/22 Discussion)

The current administration of Donald Trump has pushed for a tighter control on immigration as a major policy focus. From the building of “the wall” between Mexico and the United States to a travel ban on refugees and visitors from certain Muslim based countries, it seems that we are attempting to make it extremely difficult for someone to come to the United States, even though for some of them it is a case of life or death as they are fleeing wars, gang violence and famine.

The following is an article that summarizes the ban and what it means for refugees attempting to enter the United States.
It’s important to note that the ban has been stayed by the federal courts at this time, though the Trump administration vows to fight back to get the ban enforced.

The theological issue at hand is whether or not we are morally obligated to assist and welcome those refugees to our country. Being a relatively young country, it is safe to say that unless you are of Native American descent that more than likely your family immigrated to the United States at some point during the last 300 years. Or you may actually be a visitor from another country on a student visa.

From Dei Verbum we have learned that God’s intent has been made clear to us in the teachings of the bible. Dei Verbum also recognized the need to make God’s word available to ALL people, in all languages so that they might read and understand God’s wish for humanity. Some of the bible verses that seem applicable to our responsibility to help those in need, especially foreigners, are below:

“‘For I was hungry, and you gave Me something to eat; I was thirsty, and you gave Me something to drink; I was a stranger, and you invited Me in; naked, and you clothed Me; I was sick, and you visited Me; I was in prison, and you came to Me.’Then the righteous will answer Him, ‘Lord, when did we see You hungry, and feed You, or thirsty, and give You something to drink? And when did we see You a stranger, and invite You in, or naked, and clothe You? When did we see You sick, or in prison, and come to You?’ The King will answer and say to them, ‘Truly I say to you, to the extent that you did it to one of these brothers of Mine, even the least of them, you did it to Me’” (Matthew 25:35-40)

Do not oppress a foreigner; you yourselves know how it feels to be foreigners, because you were foreigners in Egypt. (Exodus 23:9)

“As for the foreigner who does not belong to your people Israel but has come from a distant land because of your name— for they will hear of your great name and your mighty hand and your outstretched arm—when they come and pray toward this temple, then hear from heaven, your dwelling place. Do whatever the foreigner asks of you, so that all the peoples of the earth may know your name and fear you, as do your own people Israel, and may know that this house I have built bears your Name. (1 Kings 8:41-44)

Also, we read last week in the Book of Matthew that Jesus and his parents fled persecution from King Herod and received sanctuary in Egypt from their oppressor. Are we not obligated to likewise offer sanctuary?

Discussion Questions:
Is our immigration process too onerous for those desiring to enter and live in the United States?
Do we have a moral obligation as a country to accept immigrants fleeing from war torn countries or famine?
Does the separation of church and state remove any such moral obligation to us as individuals?

Catholic boy’s quest to bring his Jewish friend to heaven (Mary Sayegh, Feb 9th-14th Discussion)

Freedom of religion is a highly promoted and followed aspect of American lives. It’s not unusual to see a temple and a Christian church across from each other or for there to be prayer rooms located at schools and workplaces. Most private schools in America have some sort of religious orientation to them and people form their lives around their faith. Faith is what guides people into decision making that ultimately leads them into living their faith desired lifestyle. Likewise, this is true for Pete in “Stolen Summer” who tries to spread the word of God to his Jewish friend through his self proclaimed quest.

Project Greenlight’s “Stolen Summer” takes place in the suburbs of Chicago where a mischievous eight year old Catholic boy, named Pete, is reprimanded by a nun at his Catholic school and told to follow the path of the Lord and not that of the devil. He then takes it upon himself to help get someone to heaven, by using his Catholicism in believing that being Catholic is the only way to get their. Since Judaism doesn’t believe in an afterlife he befriends a young Jewish boy, Danny, after visiting a Temple. He finds that the Jewish boy is ill and thinks he is a perfect candidate for his quest and so sets up a decathlon for him to get to heaven.Pete uses what he’s learned through school and church to teach Danny about what is the right way of life. Although the boys are just kids, and Danny’s salvation seeking from Pete is quite innocent, Danny’s father is a rabbi and is not happy about his son’s conversion to the Catholic faith.

Pete’s Catholicism can be traced to Dei Verbum which literally translates to “God’s word.” Pete gets the word of God through scripture and talking to his priest. Numerous times throughout the film he visits his church to ask the priest questions about his faith along with what he should do. The way Pete uses his priest as a resource is exactly how God intended priest and other persons of higher up clergy to be used for. This is supported by Dei Verbum which states,“how God acts towards human beings; that, as he spoke through the prophets, his people might understand his ways ever more deeply and clearly, and demonstrate them more widely to the nations”(Dei Verbum 4).

Pete’s understanding of scripture is much like how it’s described in Chapter three of  Dei Verbum that, “all scripture is inspired by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness, that the man of God may be complete, equipped for every good work”(Dei Verbum 3). Pete is doing just what God wants him to do by spreading his word to others. In fact, it’s almost as if Pete is a prophet of God spreading his teachings to someone who doesn’t believe it. Since Danny is Jewish he believes only what is in the Old Testament. However; Christians believe, “the new Testament should be hidden in the old, and the old Testament should be made manifest in the new (Dei Verbum 4). Danny believes that Earth is the place of one’s salvation, whereas; Pete believes your salvation is with God in heaven. The different religious views of Pete and Danny often led to conflict in the film.

Discussion Questions

Do you think children of different religions should use their religious interpretations to influence each other?

A great controversy in the film is that of Pete’s parents being somewhat okay with Pete’s quest, while Danny’s father advocates against it. Whose position do you take on it?

Churches and Political Activism (Micah Goodwin, Feb 9th-14th Discussion)

Article: Trump Vows To ‘Destroy’ The Law That Bans Churches From Endorsing Candidates (Antonia Blumberg Associate Religion Editor, The Huffington Post)

“The president wants to help churches become the new super PACs.”

Link: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/donald-trump-johnson-amendment_us_5893984de4b0c1284f24ece4?section=us_religion


Major controversy has always been present between the division of church and state. The current president of the United States, Donald Trump is aiming to abolish the “Johnson Amendment”. This amendment was enacted in 1954 and its sole purpose is to prevent churches and religious organizations from being involved in political activities and endorsement of candidates (Blumberg 2). In addition, this “50-year-old tax law that prohibits churches and other tax-exempt organizations from participating in political campaigns” (Blumberg 1). Trump voiced his opinion at a prayer breakfast about the amendment; he felt that this amendment restricts individuals from expressing their own religious beliefs (Blumberg 2). Trump does not have the power to repeal this amendment; Congress has the final say over this matter (Blumberg 3).

Generally Republicans feel that politics should be implemented in churches more than Democrats do, “nearly 60 percent of Republicans believe churches should express their political views, compared with 42 percent of Democrats” (Blumberg 5). Individuals who are in agreement with repealing this amendment desire to still promote religious structure and order. Jerry Falwell Jr. stated that if this amendment is repealed then “this is going to create a revolution among Christian leaders, nonprofit universities, and nonprofits in general” (Blumberg 4). People who are in disagreement for the repeal of the amendment believe that this will infringe on the First Amendment (Blumberg 5).

Theological Issue: Can politics affect religious beliefs and faith? What grounds are religion and religious beliefs based on?

Relation to Class:
In Vatican II, the document Dei Verbum talks about the role of bishops (religious leaders). Bishops responsibility is to teach Christians about God using biblical references and context. “It is the duty of bishops, “who have the apostolic ministry of teaching,” duly to instruct the faithful entrusted to the” (Dei Verbum 98). Bishops are held accountable for the interpretation of the word of God (Dei Verbum 98). Due to the fact that Bishops have a specific job they should avoid from deviating from this by adding political factors. Including politics in church can alter individual perception of what churches are teaching. People may begin to lose focus on the sole purpose of church, which is God.

Also Dei Verbum discusses the tradition of the church. Tradition and scripture work hand and hand together. In addition, believing in God requires an individual to practice a spiritual lifestyle. In order to practice a spiritual lifestyle God should be the primary focus (Dei Verbum 90).

In the Gospel of Matthew, the Pharisees talk with God pertaining to if they should pay taxes to Caesar (Mt. 22:15-22). God responds by letting them know that they should give back the “Roman Coin” to Caesar Mt. 22:15-22)(. This relates to politics being implemented in the church because God clearly shows that he doesn’t need anything thing additional. God solely wants for Christians to live an appropriate lifestyle and maintain reading the bible on a daily basis.


Can the incorporation of politics in religion have a major impact on the members of the church? Can religious leader’s sole purpose be altered if politics are discussed in church? Will Christians began to lose focus about their faith and commitment with God? What negative outcomes can result in the repealing of the “Johnson Amendment”?

Benedict, James Carroll, and Edward P. Hahnenberg. Vatican II: the essential       texts. New York: Image, 2012. Print.
The New American Bible: translated from the original languages with critical use of all the ancient sources: with the Revised book of Psalms and the Revised New Testament. IA Falls, IA: World Bible Publishers, 1991. Print.

The Christian Analogy to the Lion, The Witch, and the Wardrobe: The Narnia Series (Francesca De Leos, Feb 9th-14th Discussion))

Most have probably heard of C.S. Lewis, author of the famous Chronicles of Narnia, a book series, turned into a successful movie franchise. Many have enjoyed the film over the years, and most have noticed the huge similarities of the books/films to Christianity.

If you’ve watched the movie or read the books, you’ll know that Aslan, the great lion that ruled over Narnia, is a direct analogy to Jesus Christ. As C.S. wrote in a letter:
“The whole Narnian story is about Christ. That is to say, I asked myself ‘Supposing that there really was a world like Narnia and supposing it had (like our world) gone wrong and supposing Christ wanted to go into that world and save it (as He did ours), what might have happened?’ The stories are my answers.”

Although C.S. Lewis’ intention was to provide a story about Christ, many have found the Narnia chronicles to be a terrible and weak representation of Christianity. Many have found the Chronicles of Narnia to be misleading. Aslan is described as this majestic lion that reigns over the kingdom of Narnia. In addition, the book explains that Aslan’s sacrifice was due to the sacrifice of anyone who has a pure and good heart.

In contrast to the life of Jesus, He is described as the lamb, a great difference to a lion. In John 1:29, Jesus is described as the “Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world!” (John, 1:29). Jesus is the world’s majestic and powerful savior, but he is the “Lamb of God,” because the lamb is a symbol of the pure and innocent sacrifice, and peace and purity.

Moreover, in the book of Matthew, it is described that the death of Jesus was the only sacrifice that could save all human beings from sin. This can also been seen in the Revelation 1:5, “Jesus Christ…who loves us and who has released us from our sins, by His blood” (Rev. 1:5). Unlike in the C.S. Lewis books, anyone who is good enough can be a sacrifice, which the Bible explains only one person, the son of God, Jesus Christ, can save us from sin.

There is also the problem of the whimsical and magical aspect of the stories. Children, even adults, are caught up with the magical aspect of Narnia, and are amazed with the wars and fighting of evil, that the big picture of Christianity is missed; Christ Jesus died on the cross to save us from our sins, so that we may live with God in Heaven.

As explained in Dei Verbum from Vatican II, “Through Christ…human beings can draw near to the father and become sharers in the divine nature” (Dei Verbum, 85). In addition “ [Jesus’] death and his resurrection from the dead… [is] His message that God is with us to deliver us from the darkness of sin and death” (Dei Verbum, 86). Christian religion focuses on the revelation that Jesus sent his one and only son to die for us so that all may live forever.


The magical aspect of Narnia is truly great and entertaining, but as the author states it’s relation to Jesus Christ, is it a good representation of Christianity? Should this book be advertised as a Christian text, or advertised for Christians to read? These series are a huge franchise around the world, should we be concerned with its associations to the Christian theology? Also, are there any other aspects in the books that are a terrible representation of the faith? Or do you think that there are no problems with the series?

Article Source:
Toynbee, Polly. “‘Narnia represents everything that is most hateful about religion'” The Guardian.
Guardian News and Media, 05 Dec. 2005. Web. 05 Feb. 2017.

More Sources:
Benedict, James Carroll, and Edward P. Hahnenberg. Vatican II: the essential texts. New York:

Image, 2012. Print.

The Bible. Authorized King James Version, Oxford UP, 1998.