Question of Audience

When reading Roxana, the reader is immediately aware of the significance of audience. We are immediately, sparked pose the question, “Who is the author’s audience? And what purpose is the author writing?” This audience awareness is definitely a tool used by Defoe, when telling his story of Roxana. As seen in the fact that Roxana is told from a first-person point of view. When Roxana seems to recount her life she implores the idea of playing with “words and their referents” so termed by Ian Watts. She does so to justify and prove the reasons she has engaged in the actions she has done to her readers. Roxana is able to intentionally phrase, her words in a way to her advantage. These phrasings and terms may not necessarily refer to the objects as they really are. She does so when referring to her Landlord as her gentleman (37), her wealth (140), and her morality (38, 64, 118) all these seem to be the gist of Roxana’s attempt to convince her audience.
After doing some reading, I came across an article written by David Bartholomae entitled, “Inventing the University.” It is here that we learn the features of a skilled writing versus a basic writer. In this article, Bartholomae explores the significance of audience awareness as being a key characteristic that distinguishes a skilled writer from a basic writer. For example, Bartholomae writes when discussing the challenges of composition writers and their challenge of writing to their audience, “One of the common assumptions of both composition research and composition teaching is that at some “stage” in the process of composing an essay a writer’s ideas or his motives must be tailored to the needs and expectations of his audience. A writer has to “build bridges” between his point of view and his readers. He has to anticipate and acknowledge his readers’ assumptions and biases. He must begin with “common points of departure” before introducing new or controversial arguments” Bartholomae adds, “Writers who can successfully manipulate an audience (or to use a less pointed language, writers who can accommodate their motives to their readers/ expectation) are writers who can both imagine and write from a position of privilege” (9). He indicates that this writing from a position of privilege is a key to a good writer. He notes, good writers must “see themselves with in a privileged discourse,…They must be either equal to or more powerful than those they would address. The writing, then, must somehow transform the political and social relationships between basic writing students and their teachers” (9). The author notes this is key to great writers. I am sure Defoe used these factors of audience awareness when seeking to do this “new form of writing,” or the genre of the novel. It is this same idea of audience awareness that Roxana employs and she uses it to her advantage.

In my opinion to answer the question of audience, Roxana is seeking to appeal to the new emergent middle class, or the common society, who may have some religious background. She does so to gain the approval of her audience, and to justify her actions, one that hides her attempts to “prey upon others.”

Roxana and “The Individual Experience”

Roxana, portrays many of the defining characteristics of the genre of novels. I think the characteristics that distinguish the novel from other genres is seen in Ian Watts text. According to Ian Watts in, The Rise of the Novel, the author states that Richardson and Fielding were the founders of a “new kind of writing,” known as the novel. Watts argues that this new genre of writing was very different from the written text of the past and seventeenth-century writings. Watts also mentions that it “involved a break with the old fashioned romances” (9-10). Watts notes that the features of the novel encompassed “realism” (10). Watts states” ‘realism’ as the defining characteristic differentiates the work of the eighteenth-century novelists from previous fiction” (10). Watts adds that realism “attempts to portray all the varieties of the human experience” (11). Watts states that the novel ” reflects individualistic and innovating reorientation” (13). Watts mentions, the novel challenged previous literary movements “whose primary criterion was truth to individual experience- individual experience is always unique and therefore new” (13). Watts states the most significant characterisistic of the novel is its “non-traditional plots” (14). Watts notes that “Defoe and Richardson are the first great writers in our literature who did not take their plots from mythology, history, legend, or previous literature”(14). He adds “Chaucer, Spenser, Shakespeare, and Milton…used traditional plots”. Watts argues, they accepted the general premise of their time that, since Nature is essentially complete and unchanging, it’s records, whether scriptural, legendary, or historical, constitute a definitive repertoire of human experience” (14). Hence, all human experience have all been seen in these traditional plots, from these traditional perspectives, and there is no new experience that has not been written. Watts argues that Defoe stressed “the primacy of the individual experience,” rather than the “traditional plot”(15).
Daniel Defoe’s, Roxana, does just that. He portrays the unique experience of his main character, Roxana. According to the Introduction to the novel written by Jane Jack, the writer notes “Defoe insists that he is no more writer of the ‘romances’ meretricious books full of improbable people and incredible adventures.” Jack notes , “what he is telling us is the truth .” He chronicles the difficulties that Roxana faces. Jack adds, “Roxana remarks during her period of prosperity as the mistress of a wealthy French aristocrat in Paris.” After Roxana comments about her wealthy aristocrat, ” It would look a little too much like a romance here to repeat all the kind things he said to me”. She finds herself in a position as Jack argues “in the need for secrecy and the necessity of making adequate provision for the children of the Union” (vii). She is constantly worried about the money earned, and her future, according to Jack. The writer states, “If the result is a book which is essentially more of a romance than a novel, it is a romance without any touch of the exotic or the improbable: an unromantic romance” (vii). Jack argues ” Roxana is a dishonest person who travels about and preys on society” (vii). In contrast to Defoe’s other character,Moll Flanders, Roxana differs. Jack states, “Having already shown how an essentially innocent woman may be driven by poverty to a life of crime, he now created a woman who was harder and more ambitious” (x). Jack states, ” Roxana owes much more to accounts of real women than does Moll Flanders”(x). Jack adds “the moral danger of poverty is a subject to which Defoe returns as untiringly in his prose fiction as he does in his letters and in his voluminous journalism”(viii). Jack states, “Roxana loves independence as much as she loves property”.

As a reader, I was forced to ask the question, similar to Jack’s, what would an individual do in this character’s position? In the midst of poverty. For me the very path and decisions that Roxana makes are her attempts to survive. She does so by seeking to gain stability for herself and her family, through means of her many plans. Roxana comes up with these plans in order to escape living in poverty, that she is so close to facing.
Defoe’s writing is to “realistically” capture the experience in which some individuals find themselves who are without proper support and financial ties. To me Defoe seeks to capture the idea of realism, this is even noted in the beginning of the story. He states, “this story differs from most of the Modern Performances of this kind, tho’ some of them have met with very good Reception in the world: I say, It differs from them in this Great and Essential Article, Namely, That the foundation of this is laid in Truth of Fact; and so the work is not a story, but a history” (1).

I definitely agree with Jack and Watts, Defoe’s writing definitely strays from the traditional plot, and captures the “individual experience”.

Oroonoko and Fashion

One of the characteristics of literature during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was to denote observations, and details. Within Oroonoko, we see the author goes into fine details, so as to describe the customs and clothing of the people. More specifically, the fashion of the people becomes important. According to “Wonder and Science: Imagining Worlds in Early Modern Europe” by Mary Baine Campbell, the author states that this novel “played a part in the emerging project that came to be known as anthropology” (260). Campbell notes, “In an era when clothes and habit was a major focus of ethnological literature including body ornamentation…the term ‘fiction’ meant ‘the act of fashions,’ or that which is fashioned” (260). She notes that fashion meant “manners and customs,” or what has become “ethnology.” According to Campbell, The” clothing of the travelers became a site for the narratives” (261). She notes that clothing “performs important functions of organizing attention, transmitting information, or symbolizing social identities” (262). She notes that “clothing separates Oroonoko from others as an ‘aristocrat’ because of his rich Habit” (262). Campbell states “these ethnographies could be associated with novels and cultural taxonomies,” and that “Ethnography combined the lines of “modern science and fiction” (271).
The role of fashion is seen within Oroonoko when Aphra Behn describes the clothing of the many nations. For example, Behn notes that the natives wore feathers “which they order in all shapes, make themselves little short Habits of ‘em, and glorious wreaths for their Heads, Necks, Arms, and Legs” (39). The natives also wore “beads which they weave into Aprons about a quarter of an Ell long, and of the same breadth.” (39). When describing the natives Behn states that the travelers trade with the natives the feathers. For example, she states
“Then we trade for Feathers, which they order into all Shapes, make themselves little short Habits of ‘em and glorious Wreaths for their Heads, Necks, Arms and Legs, whose Tinctures are unconceivable. I had a Set of these presented to me, and I gave ‘em to the King’s Theatre, and it was the Dress of the… Queen, infinitely admir’d by Persons of Quality; and were unimitable. Beside these, a thousand little Knacks, and Rarities in Nature, and some of Art; as their Baskets… Aprons…We dealt with ‘em with Beads of all Colours…The Beads they weave into Aprons about a quarter of an Ell long, and of the same breadth; working them very prettily in Flowers of Several Colours of Beads; which Apron they wear…the Men wearing a long Stripe of Linen, which they deal with us for. They thread these Beads also on long cotton-threads, and make Girdles to tie their Aprons to, which come twenty times, or more about the Waste; and then cross, like Shoulder-belt, both ways, and round their Necks, Arms and Legs” (39).
This is used to signal the types of clothing and customs of the natives.
The novel takes place in “Surinam, in the West Indies” (39). Oroonoko the main character was a prince, and when he went into captivity he took of his “robe” (68), in exchange for lower garments. Behn describes the travelers as wearing “Petticoats, shoes, stockings” (82).
It is my opinion that fashion is extremely important within the novel. I believe it is a technique used by Behn to signal each nation’s uniqueness, and to add details to the story.


Good Evening,

I am looking forward to a great semester. I am a student within the Teaching English at the Community College. I am enrolled within this class, in addition to a second class. It was a pleasure to meet you, and I hope to get to know everyone better as the semester progresses.