In Alice in Wonderland, the main character is led by the Gryphon to hear the Mock Turtle’s story. Alice is indigent that all of the characters in Wonderland order her around, but she follows Gryphon because she is curious about the Mock Turtle. The Queen says that “he shall tell you his history”, and indeed, the Mock Turtle seems to be representing the stereotypical sad storyteller (71). Lewis Carroll describes him as “sitting sad and lonely on a little ledge of rock” and “sighing as if his heart would break” (72). Alice immediately feels sorry for him, but this pity becomes ironic when Gryphon says that “[i]t’s all his fancy, that: he hasn’t got no sorrow, you know” (72).
This episode in the story seems to serve no obvious purpose. It does not continue the basic storyline of the Duchess and the Queen and the other characters involved in the trial. In fact, the chapter and a half that deals with the Mock Turtle only seems to be a momentary lull in the chaos of the royal court. However, the Mock Turtle himself seems to draw the reader’s attention to the ironic, or even satirical elements in the story.
The first indication of this comes in the form of his name and the illustrations that accompany him. By calling him the “Mock Turtle”, Carroll draws our attention to the fact that this creature is not supposed to be a real turtle. He is not supposed to be a real turtle in the same way that he is not supposed to be a sad storyteller. Carroll toys with our expectations of what a turtle or a storyteller should be and uses these expectations to create elements of irony in the story. Mock Turtle has the head of a mouse-like animal, with the shell and flippers of a turtle. His feet are those of a goat and tail is that of a donkey. “Mock” Turtle is not what the reader would expect of a realistic turtle, which acts as a cue to the reader that other things in this scene are also not as expected.
Mock Turtle’s sad history is also not what one is led to expect. For instance, the description of him on the rock, weeping, seems to indicate that his story will be sad. However, this is not true. His “history” is full of tales of school and dancing – the only sad element is the beginning, when he states that “once” he was “a real Turtle” (72). Alice “could not help thinking that there must be more to come, so she sat still and said nothing”. However, his statement is not followed by any explanation of his transformation, but is instead followed by memories. His reminisces recall an old man with many stories to tell who just goes on and on with no true point. Instead of the anticipated dramatic storyteller, Alice listens to ramblings that do not fulfill hers and reader’s expectations of what a dramatic storyteller should tell.
By looking at this short episode in the book as an ironic or even satirical portrayal of a character type, other characters begin to make sense as well (such as the Queen). The Mock Turtle shows that Carroll uses our traditional expectations of character type in order to “mock” or poke fun at these representations.