Globalization Timeline: Further Explanation

Definition:

Globalization is intertwined with the development of mankind, and is an ongoing, gradual process in which global exchange of technology, economics, cultures, and effects on the environment occurs, resulting in the world becoming smaller and more interconnected.

Pre awareness:

  • Pax Romana (17 B.C. – 180 A.D.): This 200-year period saw unprecedented peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire. During  this period a lot of inventions were done that we still use today.
  • Great empires (Roman, Chinese):
  • Cultural Mixing: Before global awareness, cultural diffusion was occuring via trade routes and archaic communications, including both Arlington and Groningen.
  • The Founding of Christianity (1st Century): Religious motives, particularly that of Christianity, have served as a driving force of globalization. In both the US and the Netherlands, Christianity is a predominant and important religion.
  • Islamic Golden Age (7th-13th Century): The development of unique cultures and new technologies is important as both a driving factor and a cause of globalization.
  • The Renaissance (1300-1600):  The development of unique cultures and new technologies is import
  • ant as both a driving factor and a cause of globalization. The Netherlands was a part of this Renaissance in the 16th century.

Why we chose the date that we did:

When Columbus sailed to America, the world truly became a “global” one. Prior to Columbus’ expedition, the was a large disconnect between the Americas and the rest of the world. In addition, this inspired the global imaginary because people began to exploit other peoples and places for their own benefit. It may have seemed like their actions were done in ignorance, but we believe that those actions were more out of indifference for the other peoples than ignorance. Global connection like this cannot be done without global awareness. Goods began to come from all over the planet into people’s homes, and exchanges such as these cannot be done without the presence of the global imaginary. Overall, the beginning of global awareness and networking began with Columbus’ expedition.

Humankind’s increasing awareness of globalization:

  • The Protestant Reformation (1517-1648): Religion plays a large part in driving globalization; protestants created new cultures, and often fled as refugees to different places all over the world.
  • Birth of the Westphalian System (1648): A series of treaties between the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster that ended the religious war, it is identified as the beginning of the modern international system.
  • Expansion of the Slave Trade (1650): Arlington located in VA (southern state) with plantations and large population of slaves.
  • (1692) VOC (Dutch United East Indies Company) one of the first global interaction of the Netherlands.
  • U.S. and French revolutions (1776/89):
  • The abolition of slavery (1833):
  • Creation of global Red Cross (1863): The red cross provides care through the humanitarian law and the statutes of the international movement, even to this day they provide the humanitarian care.  
  • First Modern Olympic Games (1896): The Olympics have served as both a unifying and competitive force in the past, bringing people of the world together in competition. Both the US and the Netherlands participate in olympic competition.
  • WW1 (1914-1918): This war was the first of it’s kind, being as international as it was. The Netherlands took a position of armed neutrality, but the war did take its toll on the country. The US played an active role in the war, and was both negatively and positively impacted by the war.
  • League of Nations (1919): The League of Nations was an international organization, headquartered in Switzerland, created after the First World War to provide a forum for resolving international disputes. The League lasted for 26 years and has been replaced by the United Nations.
  • Development of the TV (1927): This is both technological and cultural, because the television has become such an integral aspect of modern life, and greatly accelerates cultural globalization.
  • (1929) The Great Depression, had a global effect because many counties were dependant on each other, globalization.
  • Invention of the Computer (1942): This is both technological and cultural, as the computer has become an integral part of everyday life; most schoolwork is done on computers, people communicate via computers, and so much more. Additionally, this class, and the connection between Arlington and Groningen, wouldn’t be possible without computers.
  • WW2 (1940-1945): Due to the second World War , the United Nations has been born. Furthermore it lead to the beginning of th
  • e Cold War. The war has also been economical, because capitalism started to enhance the world and it lead to the establishment of the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
  • Foundation of the United Nations (UN) (1945): The United Nations was founded to create and maintain an international order. It was a replacement for the unsuccessful League of Nations.
  • Establishment of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) (1945): The IMF is an international organization that aims to promote global economic growth and financial stability, to reduce poverty and to encourage international trade.
  • Start of the Cold War (1945): The Cold War has been a technological and political event, because during the war the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. had an arms race which resulted in a technological acceleration in the paca at which rocket and satellite technology was developed. And political, because it led to the division of two power blocks: the USA and its allies and the USSR and its allies of eastern Europe.  
  • NATO (1949): An intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European Countries. The NATO constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its dependent member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party.   
  • 1st McDonald’s (1955): McDonald’s is a typical example of the expansion of global markets and dominant western cultures, such as that of food. There are McDonald’s in both Arlington and Groningen.
  • OPEC (1960): The OPEC is both a political and economical event, since it is an intergovernmental organization (political) and it is about a fair and stable price for petroleum producers.
  • Moon Landing (1969): The moon landing was the first unifying, significant media event that served as a global common interest.
  • Coining of the term “Global Village” (1967): Relevant to the class, the coining of the term “Global Village” is indicative of people’s increasing awareness and utilization of globalization.
  • (1971) First online stock exchange, trading worldwide, causing the world to become smaller.
  • Opening up of China to the rest of the world (1978): China opened up to the rest of the world, allowing trade between China and other countries.
  • (1987) Stock market crash, worldwide affect, illustrating intercultural dependency.
  • Tearing down of the Berlin wall (1989): The fall of the Berlin wall was part of the wider collapse of Communism across Europe.
  • Formation of the European Union (EU) (1992): The European Union (EU) has been set up with the aim of ending the frequent and bloody wars between neighbours. Gradually agreements came which allowed millions of young people to study in other countries with EU support.
  • UN for Human Rights (1993): Human rights become a popular, globally infectious movement and is addressed by the UN. Human rights are a hot topic in the US and the Netherlands, especially due to growing tensions around immigration in both countries.
  • (1995) World Trade Organization
  • Seattle Anti-Globalization (1999): Another aspect indicative of people’s growing awareness of globalization, there is a backlash in Seattle.
  • Terrorists attack in the U.S. ‘’War on terror’’ (2001): After the terrorists attack, the U.S. prioritize national security and defence which lead to involvement in wars like al-Qaeda, Osama bin Laden and ISIS.
  • First Smartphone (2005): This technological development has had heavy influence on globalization- information from all over the world is at the fingertips of many, as is the ability to distribute information. Smartphones are part of what allow the connection between Arlington and Groningen to exist.
  • (2008) Stock Market Crash had a worldwide affect, illustrating intercultural dependency. Had a much larger impact on the world.

 

Works Cited:

Anonymous. “The History of the European Union.” European Union, 24 Oct. 2017, europa.eu/european-union/about-eu/history_en.

“How 9/11 Changed America: Four Major Lasting Impacts.” KQED, 11 Sept. 2018, www.kqed.org/lowdown/14066/13-years-later-four-major-lasting-impacts-of-911.

NATO. “Homepage.” NATO, www.nato.int/.

Schram, Stuart R. “Ideology and Policy in China in the Era of Reform, 1978-1986.” OPEC : Saudi Arabia, School of Orietnal and African Studies, London, www.opec.org/opec_web/en/about_us/24.htm.

Senay , Boztas, et al. “Dutch Prime Minister Warns Migrants to ‘Be Normal or Be Gone’, as He Fends off Populist Geert Wilders in Bitter Election Fight.” The Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, 23 Jan. 2017, www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/01/23/dutch-prime-minister-warns-migrants-normal-gone-fends-populist/.

Staff, Investopedia. “International Monetary Fund – IMF.” Investopedia, Investopedia, 11 Jan. 2018, www.investopedia.com/terms/i/imf.asp.

“The Fall of the Berlin Wall – 25 Years on | The Political Studies Association (PSA).” The Political Studies Association (PSA), www.psa.ac.uk/insight-plus/fall-berlin-wall-%E2%80%93-25-years.



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